Shortly after Northwest Flight 305 took off from SEA, two F-106's from the 318th FIS (stationed at McChord AFB) were called in to action to chase the airliner. Their task that night was to the shadow hijacked airliner and track its escape to Mexico. Squadron Members of the 318th commemorated this incident with an annual dinner which was held until the units deactivation in 1989.
In aviation and atmospheric sciences, an altitude is said to be above ground level (AGL) when it is measured with respect to the underlying ground surface.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision between aircraft operating in the air traffic system, to organize the flow of traffic, and to provide support for National Security and Homeland Defense.
An altimeter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level. The measurement of altitude is called altimetry, which is related to the term bathymetry, the measurement of depth underwater. Mountaineers use wrist-mounted barometric altimeters when on high-altitude expeditions, as do skydivers.
Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service in which participants, called "hams," use various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. Amateur radio operators enjoy personal (and often worldwide) wireless communications with each other and are able to support their communities with emergency and disaster communications if necessary, while increasing their personal knowledge of electronics and radio theory. An estimated six million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio. The term "amateur" is not a reflection on the skills of the participants, which are often quite advanced; rather, "amateur" indicates that amateur radio communications are not allowed to be made for commercial or money-making purposes.
Amboy is located at 45°54′12″N, 122°27′56″W (45.903228, -122.465678). According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 14.3 square miles (37.1 km²), of which, 14.3 square miles (37.1 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.14%) is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,085 people, 633 households, and 529 families residing in the CDP.
Ariel is a populated community located in
Billboard is a weekly American magazine devoted to the music
industry. It maintains several internationally recognized music charts that
track the most popular songs and albums in various categories on a weekly
basis. Its most famous chart, the "Billboard Hot 100", ranks the top
100 songs regardless of genre and is frequently used as the standard measure
for ranking songs in the
Harry Lillis “Bing”
One of the first multimedia stars, from 1934 to 1954 Bing
Crosby held a nearly unrivaled command of record sales, radio ratings, and
motion picture grosses. He is cited among the most popular musical acts in
history and is currently the most electronically recorded human voice in
Over the course of the 20th century, the city's economy
diversified. Though the manufacturing industry maintains a strong presence in
Elizabeth Short (July 29, 1924 – ca. January 15,
1947) was an American woman who was the victim of a gruesome and
much-publicized murder. Nicknamed the Black Dahlia, Short was found severely
mutilated, with her body severed, on January 15, 1947 in
Boeing is the world's leading aerospace company and the
largest manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined.
Additionally, Boeing designs and manufactures rotorcraft, electronic and
defense systems, missiles, satellites, launch vehicles and advanced information
and communication systems. As a major service provider to NASA, Boeing operates
the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The company also provides
numerous military and commercial airline support services. Boeing has customers
in more than 90 countries around the world and is one of the largest
Boeing has a long tradition of aerospace leadership and innovation. We continue to expand our product line and services to meet emerging customer needs. Their broad range of capabilities includes creating new, more efficient members of our commercial airplane family; integrating military platforms, defense systems and the warfighter through network-centric operations; creating advanced technology solutions that reach across business units; e-enabling airplanes and providing connectivity on moving platforms; and arranging financing solutions for our customers.
Boeing Field (BFI), officially
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft built by Lockheed and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. Over 40 models and variants of the Hercules serve with more than 50 nations. In December 2006, the C-130 became the fourth aircraft—after the English Electric Canberra in May 2001, the B-52 Stratofortress in January 2005 and the Tupolev Tu-95 in January 2006 – to mark 50 years of continuous use with its original primary customer, in this case the United States Air Force. The C-130 remains in production as the updated C-130J Super Hercules.
Capable of short takeoffs and landings from unprepared runways, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medical evacuation and cargo transport aircraft. The versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship, and for airborne assault, search and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refuelling and aerial firefighting. The Hercules family has the longest continuous production run of any military aircraft in history. During more than 50 years of service the family has participated in military, civilian and humanitarian aid operations.
The Columbia River (known as Wimahl or
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, Fr. Temps Universal Coordonné) is International Atomic Time (TAI) with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth's slowing rotation. In casual use, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the same as UTC. Due to the ambiguity of whether UTC or UT1 is meant, and because timekeeping laws usually refer to UTC, GMT is avoided in careful writing. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive or negative offsets from UTC. Local time is UTC plus the time zone offset for that location, plus an offset (typically +1) for daylight saving time, if in effect. UTC replaced Greenwich Mean Time on 1 January 1972 as the basis for the main reference time scale or civil time in various regions. Also see GMT.
The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is a measure of the activation and readiness level of the United States Armed Forces. It describes progressive postures for use between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commanders of unified commands. DEFCONs are matched to the situations of military severity. Standard peacetime protocol is DEFCON 5, descending in increasingly severe situations. DEFCON 1 represents expectation of actual imminent attack, and is not known to have ever been declared. In a national state of emergency, seven different alert conditions known as LERTCONs can be issued. They consist of five Defense Conditions and two Emergency Conditions (EMERGCONs).
DEFCON 5 - This is the condition used to designate normal peacetime military readiness. An upgrade in military preparedness is typically made by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and announced by the United States Secretary of Defense.
DEFCON 4 - This refers to normal, increased intelligence and the heightening of national security measures.
DEFCON 3 - This refers to an increase to force readiness above normal. Radio call signs used by American forces change to currently-classified call signs.
DEFCON 2 - This refers to a further
increase in force readiness just below maximum readiness. The most notable time
it was declared was during the Cuban Missile Crisis, although the declaration
was limited to Strategic Air
DEFCON 1 - This refers to maximum
readiness. It is not certain whether this has ever been used, but it is
reserved for imminent or ongoing attack on US military forces or
The Department of Energy (DOE) contributes to the future of the Nation by ensuring energy security, maintaining the safety, security and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile, cleaning up the environment from the legacy of the Cold War, and developing innovations in science and technology. The DOE is principally a national security agency and all of its missions flow from this core mission to support national security. After more than 30 years in existence, the Department now operates 24 preeminent research laboratories and facilities, four power marketing administrations, and an energy information administration, as well as managing the environmental cleanup from 50 years of nuclear defense activities that impacted two million acres in communities across the country.
In the last few years, DNA evidence has started to play a
big part in many nations' criminal justice systems. It has been used to prove
that suspects were involved in crimes and to free people who were wrongly
convicted. In the
Most people have a basic idea of what DNA is. It's essentially an instruction manual and blueprint for everything in your body. A DNA molecule is a long, twisting chain known as a double helix. DNA looks pretty complex, but it's really made of only four nucleotides:
These nucleotides exist as base pairs that link together like the rungs in a ladder. Adenine and thymine always bond together as a pair, and cytosine and guanine bond together as a pair. While the majority of DNA doesn't differ from human to human, some 3 million base pairs of DNA (about 0.10 percent of your entire genome) vary from person to person.
The key to DNA evidence lies in comparing the DNA from the scene of a crime with a suspect's DNA. To do this, investigators have to do three things:
Collect DNA at the crime scene and from the suspect (see How CSI Works)
Analyze the DNA to create a DNA profile
Authorities can extract DNA from almost any tissue,
including hair, fingernails, bones, teeth and bodily fluids. Sometimes,
investigators have DNA evidence but no suspects. In that case, law enforcement
officials can compare crime scene DNA to profiles stored in a database. The
most commonly used database in the
In parachuting, a drop zone or DZ is the area above and around a location where a parachutist freefalls and expects to land.
eBay Inc. is an American Internet company that manages
eBay.com, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses
buy and sell goods and services worldwide. In addition to its original
The Convair F-106 Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft for the United States Air Force from the 1960s through the 1980s. Designed as the so-called "Ultimate Interceptor," it has proven to be the last dedicated interceptor in USAF service to date. It was gradually retired during the 1980s, although the QF-106 drone conversions of the aircraft were used until 1998.
Design and development
The F-106 emerged from the USAF’s 1954 interceptor program of the early 1950s as an advanced derivative of the F-102 Delta Dagger known as the F-102B, for which the United States Air Force placed an order for in November 1955. The aircraft featured so many modifications and design changes it became a new design in its own right, re-designated F-106 on 17 June 1956.
Length: 70.7 ft (21.55 m)
Wingspan: 38.25 ft (11.67 m)
Height: 20.28 ft (6.18 m)
Wing area: 661.5 ft² (61.52 m²)
Airfoil: NACA 0004-65 mod root and tip
Empty weight: 24,420 lb (11,077 kg)
Loaded weight: 34,510 lb (15,670 kg)
Powerplant: 1× Pratt & Whitney J75-17 afterburning turbojet, 24,500 lbf (109 kN)
Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0083
Drag area: 5.8 ft² (0.54 m²)
Aspect ratio: 2.10
Maximum speed: Mach 2.3 (1,525 mph, 2,455 km/h)
Range: 1,800 mi (1,600 nm, 2,900 km) combat
Ferry range: 2,700 mi (2,300 nm, 4,300 km)
Service ceiling 57,000 ft (17,000 m)
Rate of climb: 29,000 ft/min (150 m/s)
Wing loading: 52 lb/ft² (255 kg/m²)
Lift-to-drag ratio: 12.1
Time to altitude: 6.9 min to 52,700 ft (16,065 m)
1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan gatling gun
2× AIM-4F Falcon
2× AIM-4G Falcon
1× AIR-2A Genie nuclear rocket
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary
investigative arm of the
In the hunt for the notorious hijacker
“D.B.Cooper” the FBI and other agencies with the assistance of the USAF,
Northwest Airlines, and the Boeing
The search team produced a topographic map, centered at
approximately N 45º 55.330’ latitude and W 122º 36.851’
longitude using the WGS 84 datum. It was 8.16 Statute miles wide and 10.92
statute miles high and represented of an area approximately 57,142 acres (89.1
mi2) in western
Explanation of Points:
The line C-D-E-S defines the aircraft’s most probable ground track.
The lines G-I-J-K and L-M-N-O define the westernmost and easternmost limits of the probable ground track, based on a ± 0.5 NM tolerance.
Lines A-B, H-P, and O-R are the average wind vectors between 10,000 ft, MSL and the ground. The hijacker would have drifted parallel to these lines after the parachute opened.
Line H-S-T is the northernmost (earliest) point the hijacker is believed to have jumped.
Line K-F-O is the southernmost (latest) point the hijacker is believed to have jumped.
The distance from the earliest jump point and the latest jump point is approximately 7.93 statute miles. This allows for cumulative error from radar and communications lag.
Line W3 to W4 is Low Altitude Airway Victor 23 where it traverses the map area.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is an agency of
the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and
oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the
The Federal Aviation Administration's major roles include:
Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology
Regulating civil aviation to promote safety
Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft
Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics
Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation
In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot (sometimes referred to as the "co-pilot") of an aircraft. The first officer is second-in-command to the Captain who is the legal commander. In the event of incapacitation of the captain, the first officer will assume command of the aircraft. Control of the aircraft is normally shared equally between the first officer and the captain, with one pilot normally designated the "Pilot Flying" (PF) and the other the "Pilot Not Flying" (PNF) for each flight. Even when the first officer is the flying pilot, however, the captain remains ultimately responsible for the aircraft, its passengers, and the crew. In typical day-to-day operations, the essential job tasks remain fairly equal.
Because many airlines promote by seniority only within
their own company, the first officer may at times have more flying hours than
the captain, by virtue of having experience from other airlines or the
military. Traditionally, the first officer sits on the right-hand side of a
fixed-wing aircraft and the left-hand side of a helicopter. In the rank of
Senior First Officer the pilot will also sit in the right hand seat. Often the
Senior First Officer position is used within airlines to mean someone who has
passed all the requirements for Captain, but there are no Captains positions
within the company as yet, and therefore they are "on hold" until a
position as captain becomes available when they will receive their
A position fix, or simply a fix, is a term used in position fixing in navigation to describe a position derived from measuring external reference points. The term is generally used only with manual or visual techniques such as the use of intersecting visual or radio position lines rather than the use of more automated and accurate electronic methods such as GPS. Usually, a fix is where two position lines intersect.
Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft. As flaps are extended, the stalling speed of the aircraft is reduced. Flaps are also used on the leading edge of the wings of some high-speed jet aircraft, where they may be called slats or Krueger Flaps.
Flaps reduce the stalling speed by increasing the camber of the wing and thereby increasing the maximum lift coefficient. Some trailing edge flaps also increase the area of the wing and, for any given aircraft weight, this reduces the stalling speed. The Fowler flap is an example of one which increases the area of the wing.
Extending the flaps also increases the drag coefficient of the aircraft so, for any given weight and airspeed, flaps cause higher drag. Flaps increase the drag coefficient of an aircraft because of higher induced drag caused by the distorted planform of the wing with flaps extended. (Induced drag is a minimum on a wing with elliptical planform.) Some flaps increase the wetted area of the wing and, for any given speed, this also increases the parasitic drag component of total drag.
Depending on the aircraft type, flaps may be partially extended for takeoff. With light aircraft, use of flaps for takeoff may be optional and will depend on the method of takeoff (e.g., short field, soft field, normal, etc.) When flaps are partially extended for takeoff it is to give the aircraft a slower stalling speed but with little increase in drag. A slower stalling speed allows the aircraft to take off in a shorter runway distance. Flaps are usually fully extended for landing to give the aircraft a slower stalling speed so the approach to landing can be flown more slowly, allowing the aircraft to land in a shorter runway distance. The higher drag associated with fully extended flaps allows a steeper approach to the landing site. This is the benefit of the higher drag coefficient of fully extended flaps.
Some gliders not only use flaps when landing but also in flight to optimize the camber of the wing for the chosen speed. When thermalling, flaps may be partially extended to reduce the stalling speed so that the glider can be flown more slowly and thereby turn in a smaller circle to make best use of the core of the thermal. At higher speeds a negative flap setting is used to reduce the nose-down pitching moment. This reduces the balancing load required on the horizontal stabilizer which in turn reduces the trim drag - drag associated with keeping the glider in longitudinal trim. Negative flap may also be used during the initial stage of an aerotow launch and at the end of the landing run in order to maintain better control by the ailerons.
Types of flap systems include:
Krueger flap - hinged flap on the leading edge. Often called a "droop."
Plain flap — rotates on a simple hinge.
Split flap — upper and lower surfaces are separate, the lower surface operates like a plain flap, but the upper surface stays immobile or moves only slightly.
Fowler flap — slides backwards before hinging downwards, thereby increasing both camber and chord, creating a larger wing surface better tuned for lower speeds.
Fairey-Youngman flap - moves bodily down before moving aft and rotating.
Slotted flap — a slot (or gap) between the flap and the wing enables high pressure air from below the wing to re-energize the boundary layer over the flap. This helps the airflow to stay attached to the flap, delaying the stall.
Blown flaps — systems that blow engine air over the upper surface of the flap at certain angles to improve lift characteristics.
The department or program at an airline that is responsible for all areas of flight operations, including the airline's flight standards, flight control and crew scheduling, and oversight of the development and implementation of operational policies and procedures to ensure the highest possible level of safety and efficiency.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the base has
a total area of 15.9 square miles (41.2 km²), of which, 15.3 square miles
(39.6 km²) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km²) of it is
water. The total area is 3.78% water. The
Geocaching is an entertaining adventure game for GPS users. Participating in a cache hunt is a good way to take advantage of the wonderful features and capability of a GPS unit. The basic idea is to have individuals and organizations set up caches all over the world and share the locations of these caches on the internet. GPS users can then use the location coordinates to find the caches. Once found, a cache may provide the visitor with a wide variety of rewards. All the visitor is asked to do is if they take something they should try to leave something for the cache.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to
mean solar time at the Royal Observatory,
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully
functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Utilizing a constellation
of at least 24 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave
signals, the system enables a GPS receiver to determine its location, speed,
direction, and time. Other similar systems are the Russian GLONASS (incomplete
as of 2008), the upcoming European Galileo positioning system, the proposed
COMPASS navigation system of
The origins of the HALO technique date back to 1960 when the U.S. Air Force was conducting experiments that followed earlier work by Colonel John Stapp in the late 1940s through early 1950s on survivability factors for high-flying pilots needing to eject at high altitudes. Stapp, a research physicist and medical doctor, used himself as a human guinea pig in rocket sled tests to determine whether or not wind impact would kill ejecting pilots. Stapp also solved many of the issues involved in high altitude flight in his earliest work for the Air Force, and subjected himself to exposure to altitudes of 45,000 feet (14,000 m). Subsequently, he helped develop pressure suits and ejection seats, which have been used in jets ever since. As part of the experiments, on August 16, 1960, Colonel Joe Kittinger performed the first high altitude jump at an altitude of 19.5 miles (31.4 km) above the Earth's surface.
However, the technique was used for combat for the first
time in the
For military cargo airdrops, the rigged load is pulled from the aircraft by a stabilizing parachute. The load then proceeds to free-fall to a low altitude where a cargo parachute opens to allow a low-velocity landing. Military personnel will later move to the landing point in order to secure the equipment or to unpack the supplies.
In a typical HALO exercise, the parachutist will jump from the aircraft, free-fall for a period of time at terminal velocity, and open his parachute at a low altitude. The combination of high speed downwards, and minimal metal and forward air-speed serves to defeat radar, enabling a stealthy insertion.
Hijacking - hijacking (plural hijackings)
1. The act of one who hijacks; the seizure of vehicles.
2. The instance of such an act; the seizure of a vehicle.
Hydrology (from Greek: for "water"; and "study") is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, and thus addresses both the hydrologic cycle and water resources. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of either earth science or environmental science, physical geography or civil and environmental engineering.
Domains of hydrology include: hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role. Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects.
Hydrological research is useful in that it allows us to better understand the world in which we live, and also provides insight for environmental engineering, policy and planning.
Issaquah (Iz-ah-qu-ah) is a city in
Jack the Ripper is an alias given to an unidentified serial
killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area and adjacent
The victims were women allegedly earning income as prostitutes. The murders were perpetrated in public or semi-public places at night or towards the early morning. The victim's throat was cut, after which the body was mutilated. Theories suggest the victims were first strangled in order to silence them and to explain the lack of reported blood at the crime scenes. The removal of internal organs from three of the victims led some officials at the time of the murders to propose that the killer possessed anatomical or surgical knowledge. Newspapers, whose circulation had been growing during this era, bestowed widespread and enduring notoriety on the killer owing to the savagery of the attacks and the failure of the police in their attempts to capture the murderer, sometimes missing him at the crime scenes by mere minutes.
Due to the lack of a confirmed identity for the killer, the legends surrounding the murders have become a combination of genuine historical research, folklore and exploitation. Over the years, many authors, historians, and amateur detectives have proposed theories regarding the identities of the killer and his victims.
JonBenét Patricia Ramsey (August 6, 1990—December 25, 1996) was an American girl made famous by her mysterious Christmastime murder and subsequent media coverage. She was found dead in the basement of her parents' home in Boulder, Colorado, nearly eight hours after she was reported missing.
The case is notable in both its longevity and the media
interest it has generated in the
(See Parachutist Badge)
McChord Air Force Base (TCM) is a United States Air Force
McNeil Island Corrections Center (MICC) is located 2.8 miles from Steilacoom in southern Puget Sound just west of Steilacoom, Washington at 47°12′42″N, 122°41′14″W. It is reached by a 20-minute boat ride on one of the facility's passenger vessels.
The main facility houses medium-custody offenders in five living units and a segregation unit. It is located on approximately 89 acres and is within walking distance of the island passenger dock.
Currently, MICC has 555 staff members. Two other buildings
house education, recreation, medical and mental health services, and vocational
education. Also located on
A meme consists of any unit of cultural information, such as a practice or idea, that gets transmitted verbally or by repeated action from one mind to another. Examples include thoughts, ideas, theories, practices, habits, songs, dances and moods and terms such as race, culture, and ethnicity. Memes propagate themselves and can move through a "culture" in a manner similar to the behavior of a virus. As a unit of cultural evolution, a meme in some ways resembles a gene. Richard Dawkins, in his book, The Selfish Gene, recounts how and why he coined the term meme to describe how one might extend Darwinian principles to explain the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena. He gave as examples tunes, catch-phrases, beliefs, clothing-fashions, and the technology of building arches.
Meme-theorists contend that memes evolve by natural selection (similarly to Darwinian biological evolution) through the processes of variation, mutation, competition, and inheritance influencing an individual entity's reproductive success. So with memes, some ideas will propagate less successfully and become extinct, while others will survive, spread, and, for better or for worse, mutate. "Memeticists argue that the memes most beneficial to their hosts will not necessarily survive; rather, those memes that replicate the most effectively spread best, which allows for the possibility that successful memes may prove detrimental to their hosts."
The My Lai Massacre was the mass murder of 347 to 504
unarmed citizens of the
The Resistration Number of the Boeing 727-51 that was being
flown on Northwest Airlines Flight 305 on the night it was hijacked near
Serial 18803; Line Number 137; First Flight 04/09/1965; Delivery Date 04/22/1965 ; Model 727-51; Airline, Northwest Airlines; Status Left Fleet
N467US Northwest Airlines
N838N United Technologies lsd
N838N Flight Dynamics lsd
N838N Key AL
Withdrawn from use Feb 93, flown to Greenwood MS Oct 93 to be broken up. Scrapped 1996.
The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR)
is the largest sanctioning body of stock cars in the
From 1996 to 1998, NASCAR held exhibition races in
In 2007 NASCAR made a profit of just under $3 billion, and
was the second richest motorsport (Formula One was first). NASCAR's
headquarters are located in
A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of latitude along any meridian. It is a non-SI unit used especially by navigators in the shipping and aviation industries. It is commonly used in international law and treaties, especially regarding the limits of territorial waters. The international standard definition is: 1 nautical mile = 1,852 metres exactly. It is also equal to 1.150779 statute miles.
The code-name used by the FBI for the Cooper case. Also the name of a book by Ralph P. Himmelsbach an investigator on NORJAK until his retirement in 1980. The actual title of the book is: “Norjak the Investigation of D B Cooper”
Northwest Airlines, Inc. (often abbreviated NWA) is the principal
subsidiary of Northwest Airlines Corporation and is a major
The industry and technology surrounding the production of
electric power by use if a nuclear reactor. As of 2007 in the United States,
there are 104 (69 pressurized water reactors and 35 boiling water reactors)
commercial nuclear generating units licensed to operate, producing a total of
97,400 megawatts (electric), which is approximately 20% of the nation's total
electric energy consumption. The
The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting
eight hours from Coordinated Universal
Time (UTC-8). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean
solar time of the 120th degree meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.
During daylight saving time, its time offset is UTC-7. The zone is one hour
ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone and three
hours behind the Eastern Time Zone. In the
A parachute rigger is a person who is trained or licensed to pack, maintain or repair parachutes. A rigger is required to understand fabrics, hardware, webbing, regulations, sewing, packing, and other aspects related to the building, packing, repair, and maintenance of parachutes.
Portland International Airport (IATA: PDX, ICAO: KPDX, FAA
LID: PDX) is the largest airport in the U.S. state of Oregon, accounting for
90% of passenger travel and more than 95% of air cargo of the state. It is located on the south side of the
Columbia River in
PDX has direct connections to major airport hubs throughout
Parachuting is an activity involving a preplanned drop from a height using a deployable parachute. One type of parachuting is skydiving, which is recreational parachuting, also called sport parachuting. The history of parachuting is not clear. It's known that Andre-Jacques Garnerin made successful parachute jumps from a hot-air balloon in 1797.
The military developed parachuting technology first as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1951. Today it is performed as a recreational activity and a competitive sport, as well as for the deployment of military personnel Airborne forces and occasionally forest firefighters. Also see skydiving.
The Parachutist Badge, also commonly referred to as "Jump Wings" or "Snow Cone", is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which is awarded to members of the United States Army, Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy. The United States Coast Guard is the only service which does not issue a Parachutist Badge, however Coast Guard members are entitled to receive the Parachutist Badge of another service, if the proper training was received.
The Army Parachutist Badge is awarded to all military
personnel in any service who complete
The original Army Parachutist Badge was designed in 1941 by Lieutenant General (then Major) William P. Yarborough and approved by the Department of the Army in March of that year. The Parachutist Badge replaced the Parachutist Patch which previously had been worn as a large patch on the right side of a Paratrooper's garrison cap. The flash that is worn behind the badge is also a contribution of William P. Yarborough.
The Army Parachutist Badge is issued in three degrees, being that of Basic, Senior, and Master Parachutist. The various degrees are signified by a star and wreath above the decoration.
The Pentagon Papers is the popular name for a 7,000-page
The Pentagon Papers' true title is “United
States–Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the
Department of Defense”, a 47-volume, 7,000-page, top-secret Department of
Defense history of the
A placard is a sign or sign-like device attached to or hung from a vehicle to indicate information about the operation of the vehicle or the contents of the vehicle.
Portland State University (PSU) is a public state urban
university located in downtown
Athletic teams are known as the Portland State Vikings with school colors of forest green and white. Teams compete at the NCAA Division I Level, primarily in the Big Sky Conference.
Schools at PSU include the
The city and region are noted for strong land-use planning
and investment in public transit, supported by Metro, a distinctive
A Private Pilot is the holder of a Private Pilot License. They are able to fly to almost anywhere in the world, but are limited in the aircraft that they can fly and the number of passengers they can fly with (usually restricted to 10). They are also not permitted to profit from any flight or advertise their services, although they may have their expenses partially, or in some countries, completely covered by the passengers. Although most Private Pilots can only fly under the Visual Flight Rules (VFR) during the day, night and instrument ratings can also be obtained.
Puget Sound is an arm of the Pacific Ocean, connected to
the rest of the Pacific by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the Pacific Northwest
A telecommunications system consisting of two or more teleprinters using radio as the transmission medium. The term radioteletype is used to describe: either the entire family of systems connecting two teletypes (TTY) over radio, regardless of alphabet, link system or modulation, or specifically the original radioteletype system, sometime described as "Baudot".
The site was once a popular campsite beside a ford on the
Donner Pass route to
The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system, completed in the early 1960s, revolutionized air defense. The integrated radar and computer technology that was developed for SAGE also contributed significantly to the development of civilian air traffic control systems.
SeaTac is a city and outlying suburb of
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA), also known as
A sectional chart provides detailed information on topographical features that are important to aviators, such as terrain elevations, ground features identifiable from altitude (rivers, dams, bridges, buildings, etc.), and ground features useful to pilots (airports, beacons, landmarks, etc.).
The chart also provides information on airspace classes, ground-based navigation aids, radio frequencies, longitude and latitude, navigation waypoints, navigation routes.
Sectional charts are in 1:500,000 scale and are named for a
major city within their area of coverage. The Federal Aviation Administration
The sectionals are complemented by Terminal Area Charts
(TACs), produced in 1:250,000 scale and depicting the areas around major
The first sectional chart was published in 1930. It was not until 1937 that the full series of the lower 48 states was completed. These early sectional charts were printed on smaller sheets of paper and map information was only printed on one side while the reverse side contained the legend, index to adjoining charts, and airport diagrams.
One type of parachuting is skydiving, which is recreational parachuting, also called sport parachuting.
The kidnapping of the passengers of an airplane by threat of force. The hijacking an airplane, especially in flight. Also see hijacking.
The Washington State Patrol (WSP) is the state police
agency for the State of
The State Patrol has law enforcement authority anywhere in
the State of
Having a dark complexion or color.
Tena Bar is a sandbar on the Columbia River, five miles
downriver from downtown
Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a traditional North
American holiday, which is a form of harvest festival. First celebrated in what
Toutle is an unincorporated community in
TTY is a short form of a Teletypewriter or Teletype, a typewriter with an electronic communication channel. Also see RTTY.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare
branch of the armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the U.S.
Previously part of the U.S. Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of
the military on September 18, 1947. It is the last branch of the
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, Fr. Temps Universal Coordonné)
The larger city of
Meriwether Lewis wrote that the
In aviation, an airway is a designated route in the air.
Airways are laid out between navigation aids such as VORs, Non-Directional Beacons (NDBs) and Intersections
(NDB-based airways are rare in the
In the United States low altitude airways (below 18,000 feet [5,500 m] above Mean Sea Level (MSL)), appear on sectional world aeronautical charts and enroute low altitude charts and are designated by the letter "V" (pronounced Victor, hence Victor airways). High altitude airways (above 18,000 ft [5,500 m] MSL), called jet routes, appear on high altitude charts (that usually don't show topography, as the low altitude charts do) and are designated by the letter "J".
The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War,
the Vietnam Conflict, and, in
Developed from earlier Visual-Aural Range (VAR) systems, the VOR was designed to provide 360 courses to and from the station selectable by the pilot. Early vacuum tube transmitters with mechanically-rotated antennas were widely installed in the 1950s, and began to be replaced with fully solid-state units in the early 1960s. They became the major radio navigation system in the 1960s, when they took over from the older radio beacon and four-course (low/medium frequency range) system. Some of the older range stations survived, with the four-course directional features removed, as non-directional low or medium frequency radio-beacons (NDBs).
The VOR's major advantage is that the radio signal provides
a reliable line (radial) from the station which can be selected and followed by
the pilot. A worldwide network of "air highways", known in the
The headwaters of the
An altimeter worn on the wrist like a watch.
This page was last revised: April 14, 2009.
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