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Definition of Terms


318 Fighter Interceptor Squadron

Shortly after Northwest Flight 305 took off from SEA, two F-106's from the 318th FIS (stationed at McChord AFB) were called in to action to chase the airliner. Their task that night was to the shadow hijacked airliner and track its escape to Mexico.  Squadron Members of the 318th commemorated this incident with an annual dinner which was held until the units deactivation in 1989.  


Above Ground Level (AGL)

In aviation and atmospheric sciences, an altitude is said to be above ground level (AGL) when it is measured with respect to the underlying ground surface.

Air Traffic Control (ATC)

Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of the ATC system is to prevent a collision between aircraft operating in the air traffic system, to organize the flow of traffic, and to provide support for National Security and Homeland Defense.


An altimeter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level. The measurement of altitude is called altimetry, which is related to the term bathymetry, the measurement of depth underwater. Mountaineers use wrist-mounted barometric altimeters when on high-altitude expeditions, as do skydivers.

Amateur Radio

Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service in which participants, called "hams," use various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. Amateur radio operators enjoy personal (and often worldwide) wireless communications with each other and are able to support their communities with emergency and disaster communications if necessary, while increasing their personal knowledge of electronics and radio theory. An estimated six million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio. The term "amateur" is not a reflection on the skills of the participants, which are often quite advanced; rather, "amateur" indicates that amateur radio communications are not allowed to be made for commercial or money-making purposes.

Amboy, Washington

Amboy is located at 45°54′12″N, 122°27′56″W (45.903228, -122.465678). According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 14.3 square miles (37.1 km²), of which, 14.3 square miles (37.1 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.14%) is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,085 people, 633 households, and 529 families residing in the CDP.

Ariel, Washington

Ariel is a populated community located in Cowlitz County at latitude 45.957 and longitude -122.571. The elevation is 348 feet. Ariel appears on the Ariel U.S. Geological Survey Map. Cowlitz County is in the Pacific time zone (GMT -8).


Billboard #1 hit

Billboard is a weekly American magazine devoted to the music industry. It maintains several internationally recognized music charts that track the most popular songs and albums in various categories on a weekly basis. Its most famous chart, the "Billboard Hot 100", ranks the top 100 songs regardless of genre and is frequently used as the standard measure for ranking songs in the United States. The "Billboard 200" survey is the corresponding chart for album sales.

Bing Crosby

Harry Lillis “Bing” Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American popular singer and Academy Award-winning actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977.

One of the first multimedia stars, from 1934 to 1954 Bing Crosby held a nearly unrivaled command of record sales, radio ratings, and motion picture grosses. He is cited among the most popular musical acts in history and is currently the most electronically recorded human voice in history. Crosby is also credited as being the major inspiration for most of the male singers of the era that followed him, including Frank Sinatra, Perry Como, and Dean Martin. Yank magazine recognized Crosby as the person who had done the most for American G.I. morale during World War II and, during his peak years, around 1948, polls declared him the "most admired man alive," ahead of Jackie Robinson and the pope. Also during 1948, the Music Digest estimated that Crosby recordings filled more than half of the 80,000 weekly hours allocated to recorded radio music. Clarinetist Artie Shaw described Crosby as "the first hip white person born in the United States." Crosby exerted an important influence on the development of the postwar recording industry. In 1947, he invested US$50,000 in the Ampex company, which developed the world's first commercial reel-to-reel tape recorder, and Crosby became the first performer to pre-record his radio shows and master his commercial recordings on magnetic tape. He gave one of the first Ampex Model 200 recorders to his friend, musician Les Paul, which led directly to Paul's invention of multitrack recording. Along with Frank Sinatra, he was one of the principal backers behind the famous United Western Recorders studio complex in Los Angeles. In 1962, Crosby was the first person to receive the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award.

Birmingham, Alabama

Birmingham is the largest city in the U.S. state of Alabama and is the county seat of Jefferson County. It also includes part of Shelby County. The population of the city is 242,820 as of the 2000 census, and 229,424 according to the 2006 estimate. The Birmingham-Hoover Metropolitan Area, as of the 2007 census estimates, has a population of 1,108,210. It is also the largest city in the Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman Combined Statistical Area, colloquially known as Greater Birmingham, which contains roughly one quarter of the population of Alabama.


Birmingham was founded in 1871, just after the U.S. Civil War, as an industrial enterprise. It was named after Birmingham, the major industrial city of England. Through the middle of the 20th century, Birmingham was the primary industrial center of the Southern United States. The astonishing pace of Birmingham's growth through the turn of the century earned it the nicknames "The Magic City" and "The Pittsburgh of the South". Much like Pittsburgh in the north, Birmingham's major industries centered around iron and steel production.


Over the course of the 20th century, the city's economy diversified. Though the manufacturing industry maintains a strong presence in Birmingham, other industries such as banking, insurance, medicine, publishing, and biotechnology have risen in stature. Birmingham has been recognized as one of the top cities for income growth in the United States South with an significant increase in per capita income since 1990.


Today, Birmingham ranks as one of the most important business centers in the Southeastern United States and is also one of the largest banking centers in the U.S. In addition, the Birmingham area serves as headquarters to one Fortune 500 company: Regions Financial. Five Fortune 1000 companies are headquartered in Birmingham.

Black Dahlia

Elizabeth Short (July 29, 1924 – ca. January 15, 1947) was an American woman who was the victim of a gruesome and much-publicized murder. Nicknamed the Black Dahlia, Short was found severely mutilated, with her body severed, on January 15, 1947 in Leimert Park, Los Angeles, California. The murder, which remains unsolved, has been the source of widespread speculation as well as several books and film adaptations.


Boeing is the world's leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined. Additionally, Boeing designs and manufactures rotorcraft, electronic and defense systems, missiles, satellites, launch vehicles and advanced information and communication systems. As a major service provider to NASA, Boeing operates the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The company also provides numerous military and commercial airline support services. Boeing has customers in more than 90 countries around the world and is one of the largest U.S. exporters in terms of sales.


Boeing has a long tradition of aerospace leadership and innovation. We continue to expand our product line and services to meet emerging customer needs. Their broad range of capabilities includes creating new, more efficient members of our commercial airplane family; integrating military platforms, defense systems and the warfighter through network-centric operations; creating advanced technology solutions that reach across business units; e-enabling airplanes and providing connectivity on moving platforms; and arranging financing solutions for our customers.


Headquartered in Chicago, Boeing employs more than 160,000 people across the United States and in 70 countries. This represents one of the most diverse, talented and innovative workforces anywhere. More than 83,800 of their people hold college degrees--including nearly 29,000 advanced degrees--in virtually every business and technical field from approximately 2,800 colleges and universities worldwide. Their enterprise also leverages the talents of hundreds of thousands more skilled people working for Boeing suppliers worldwide.

Boeing Field (BFI)

Boeing Field (BFI), officially King County International Airport is a two-runway airport owned and run by King County, Washington. In promotional literature, the airport is frequently referred to as KCIA, but this is not the airport identifier. The airport has some passenger service, but is mostly used by general aviation and cargo. It is named after the founder of the Boeing Company, William E. Boeing. The airport's property is located mostly in Seattle just south of Georgetown, with its southern tip extending into Tukwila. It is 594 acres (2.4 km²) in area and handles more than 375,000 operations yearly.



C-130 Hercules Cargo Plane

The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft built by Lockheed and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. Over 40 models and variants of the Hercules serve with more than 50 nations. In December 2006, the C-130 became the fourth aircraft—after the English Electric Canberra in May 2001, the B-52 Stratofortress in January 2005 and the Tupolev Tu-95 in January 2006 – to mark 50 years of continuous use with its original primary customer, in this case the United States Air Force. The C-130 remains in production as the updated C-130J Super Hercules.


Capable of short takeoffs and landings from unprepared runways, the C-130 was originally designed as a troop, medical evacuation and cargo transport aircraft. The versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship, and for airborne assault, search and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refuelling and aerial firefighting. The Hercules family has the longest continuous production run of any military aircraft in history. During more than 50 years of service the family has participated in military, civilian and humanitarian aid operations.

Clark County, WA

Clark County is a county located in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Washington, across the Columbia River from Portland, Oregon. Clark County was the first county of Washington, and was named after William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. It was created by the provisional government of Oregon Territory on August 20, 1845, and at that time covered the entire present-day state. In 2004, Clark County's population was estimated to be 392,403. Its county seat is at Vancouver, which is also its largest city.

Columbia River

The Columbia River (known as Wimahl or Big River to the Chinook-speaking natives who live on its lowermost reaches) is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. It is named after the Columbia Rediviva, the first ship from the western world known to have traveled up the river. It stretches from the Canadian province of British Columbia through the U.S. state of Washington, forming much of the border between Washington and Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles (2,000 km) long, and its drainage basin is 258,000 square miles (670,000 km²). Measured by the volume of its flow, the Columbia is the largest river flowing into the Pacific from North America and is the fourth-largest river in the United States. The river's heavy flow, and its large elevation drop over a relatively short distance, give it tremendous potential for the generation of electricity. It is the largest hydroelectric power producing river in North America with fourteen hydroelectric dams in the United States and Canada. The Columbia and its tributaries are home to numerous anadromous fish, which migrate between small fresh water tributaries of the river and the Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the various species of salmon—have been a vital part of the river's ecology and the local economy for thousands of years. The taming of the river for human use, and the industrial waste that resulted in some cases, have come into conflict with ecological conservation numerous times since Americans and Europeans began to settle the area in the 18th century. This "harnessing," as it was commonly described in the popular culture of the early 20th century, included dredging for navigation by larger ships, nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research and production, and the construction of dams for power generation, irrigation, navigation, and flood control.

Coordinated Universal Time

Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, Fr. Temps Universal Coordonné) is International Atomic Time (TAI) with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth's slowing rotation. In casual use, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the same as UTC. Due to the ambiguity of whether UTC or UT1 is meant, and because timekeeping laws usually refer to UTC, GMT is avoided in careful writing. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive or negative offsets from UTC. Local time is UTC plus the time zone offset for that location, plus an offset (typically +1) for daylight saving time, if in effect. UTC replaced Greenwich Mean Time on 1 January 1972 as the basis for the main reference time scale or civil time in various regions.  Also see GMT.

Cowlitz County

Cowlitz County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. In 2000, its population was 92,948. It forms the Longview, Washington Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of Cowlitz County. The county seat is at Kelso, and its largest city is Longview. Its name derives from a Cowlitz word meaning "seeker" (in a spiritual sense). It was formed on April 21, 1854.




The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is a measure of the activation and readiness level of the United States Armed Forces. It describes progressive postures for use between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the commanders of unified commands. DEFCONs are matched to the situations of military severity. Standard peacetime protocol is DEFCON 5, descending in increasingly severe situations. DEFCON 1 represents expectation of actual imminent attack, and is not known to have ever been declared. In a national state of emergency, seven different alert conditions known as LERTCONs can be issued. They consist of five Defense Conditions and two Emergency Conditions (EMERGCONs).



*    DEFCON 5 - This is the condition used to designate normal peacetime military readiness. An upgrade in military preparedness is typically made by the Joint Chiefs of Staff and announced by the United States Secretary of Defense.

*    DEFCON 4 - This refers to normal, increased intelligence and the heightening of national security measures.

*    DEFCON 3 - This refers to an increase to force readiness above normal. Radio call signs used by American forces change to currently-classified call signs.

*    DEFCON 2 - This refers to a further increase in force readiness just below maximum readiness. The most notable time it was declared was during the Cuban Missile Crisis, although the declaration was limited to Strategic Air Command. It is not certain how many times this level of readiness has been reached.

*    DEFCON 1 - This refers to maximum readiness. It is not certain whether this has ever been used, but it is reserved for imminent or ongoing attack on US military forces or US territory by a foreign military power.

Department of Energy

The Department of Energy (DOE) contributes to the future of the Nation by ensuring energy security, maintaining the safety, security and reliability of the nuclear weapons stockpile, cleaning up the environment from the legacy of the Cold War, and developing innovations in science and technology. The DOE is principally a national security agency and all of its missions flow from this core mission to support national security. After more than 30 years in existence, the Department now operates 24 preeminent research laboratories and facilities, four power marketing administrations, and an energy information administration, as well as managing the environmental cleanup from 50 years of nuclear defense activities that impacted two million acres in communities across the country.

DNA evidence

In the last few years, DNA evidence has started to play a big part in many nations' criminal justice systems. It has been used to prove that suspects were involved in crimes and to free people who were wrongly convicted. In the United States, it has been integral to several high-profile criminal cases, including the trial of Orenthal James (O.J.) Simpson and the investigation of the 1996 murder of JonBenet Ramsey.


Most people have a basic idea of what DNA is. It's essentially an instruction manual and blueprint for everything in your body. A DNA molecule is a long, twisting chain known as a double helix. DNA looks pretty complex, but it's really made of only four nucleotides:

*    Adenine

*    Cytosine

*    Guanine

*    Thymine

These nucleotides exist as base pairs that link together like the rungs in a ladder. Adenine and thymine always bond together as a pair, and cytosine and guanine bond together as a pair. While the majority of DNA doesn't differ from human to human, some 3 million base pairs of DNA (about 0.10 percent of your entire genome) vary from person to person.


The key to DNA evidence lies in comparing the DNA from the scene of a crime with a suspect's DNA. To do this, investigators have to do three things:

*    Collect DNA at the crime scene and from the suspect (see How CSI Works)

*    Analyze the DNA to create a DNA profile

*    Compare the profiles to each other


Authorities can extract DNA from almost any tissue, including hair, fingernails, bones, teeth and bodily fluids. Sometimes, investigators have DNA evidence but no suspects. In that case, law enforcement officials can compare crime scene DNA to profiles stored in a database. The most commonly used database in the United States is called CODIS, which stands for Combined DNA Index System. CODIS is maintained by the FBI. By law, authorities in all 50 states must collect DNA samples from convicted sex offenders for inclusion in CODIS. Some states also require all convicted felons to submit DNA.

Drop Zone (DZ)

In parachuting, a drop zone or DZ is the area above and around a location where a parachutist freefalls and expects to land.




eBay Inc. is an American Internet company that manages, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell goods and services worldwide. In addition to its original U.S. website, eBay has established localized websites in thirty other countries. eBay Inc also owns PayPal, Skype, and other businesses.


F-106A Delta Dart

F-106 Delta Dart like the ones used to chase Northwest Airlines Flight 305 after it was hijacked by D B Cooper.The Convair F-106 Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft for the United States Air Force from the 1960s through the 1980s. Designed as the so-called "Ultimate Interceptor," it has proven to be the last dedicated interceptor in USAF service to date. It was gradually retired during the 1980s, although the QF-106 drone conversions of the aircraft were used until 1998.


Design and development

The F-106 emerged from the USAF’s 1954 interceptor program of the early 1950s as an advanced derivative of the F-102 Delta Dagger known as the F-102B, for which the United States Air Force placed an order for in November 1955. The aircraft featured so many modifications and design changes it became a new design in its own right, re-designated F-106 on 17 June 1956.

General characteristics:

Crew: 1

Length: 70.7 ft (21.55 m)

Wingspan: 38.25 ft (11.67 m)

Height: 20.28 ft (6.18 m)

Wing area: 661.5 ft² (61.52 m²)

Airfoil: NACA 0004-65 mod root and tip

Empty weight: 24,420 lb (11,077 kg)

Loaded weight: 34,510 lb (15,670 kg)

Powerplant: 1× Pratt & Whitney J75-17 afterburning turbojet, 24,500 lbf (109 kN)

Zero-lift drag coefficient: 0.0083

Drag area: 5.8 ft² (0.54 m²)

Aspect ratio: 2.10


Maximum speed: Mach 2.3 (1,525 mph, 2,455 km/h)

Range: 1,800 mi (1,600 nm, 2,900 km) combat

Ferry range: 2,700 mi (2,300 nm, 4,300 km)

Service ceiling 57,000 ft (17,000 m)

Rate of climb: 29,000 ft/min (150 m/s)

Wing loading: 52 lb/ft² (255 kg/m²)

Thrust/weight: 0.71

Lift-to-drag ratio: 12.1

Time to altitude: 6.9 min to 52,700 ft (16,065 m)



1× 20 mm (0.787 in) M61 Vulcan gatling gun


2× AIM-4F Falcon

2× AIM-4G Falcon

1× AIR-2A Genie nuclear rocket


The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both a federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. At present, the FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes, making the FBI the de-facto lead law enforcement agency of the United States government. The motto of the bureau is "Fidelity, Bravery, Integrity". The FBI headquarters is in Washington, D.C., also has 56 field offices located in major cities throughout the United States as well as over 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and towns across the nation, and more than 50 international offices called "Legal Attachés", in U.S. embassies worldwide.

FBI Jump Zone

In the hunt for the notorious hijacker “D.B.Cooper” the FBI and other agencies with the assistance of the USAF, Northwest Airlines, and the Boeing Company, mounted an intensive ground search in western Washington State. The hijacking occurred in late 1971 and the major search effort was done in early 1972. A map was produced to aid the searchers by defining the probable location envelope based on the estimated jump position of the hijacker. [FBI 1972 Map] [Sluggo’s 2008 Map] [USGS Topo Maps]


The search team produced a topographic map, centered at approximately N 45º 55.330’ latitude and W 122º 36.851’ longitude using the WGS 84 datum. It was 8.16 Statute miles wide and 10.92 statute miles high and represented of an area approximately 57,142 acres (89.1 mi2) in western Washington.


Explanation of Points:

*    The line C-D-E-S defines the aircraft’s most probable ground track.

*    The lines G-I-J-K and L-M-N-O define the westernmost and easternmost limits of the probable ground track, based on a ± 0.5 NM tolerance.

*    Lines A-B, H-P, and O-R are the average wind vectors between 10,000 ft, MSL and the ground. The hijacker would have drifted parallel to these lines after the parachute opened.

*    Line H-S-T is the northernmost (earliest) point the hijacker is believed to have jumped.

*    Line K-F-O is the southernmost (latest) point the hijacker is believed to have jumped.

*    The distance from the earliest jump point and the latest jump point is approximately 7.93 statute miles. This allows for cumulative error from radar and communications lag.

*    Line W3 to W4 is Low Altitude Airway Victor 23 where it traverses the map area.

Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)

The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is an agency of the United States Department of Transportation with authority to regulate and oversee all aspects of civil aviation in the U.S. The Federal Aviation Act of 1958 created the group under the name "Federal Aviation Agency", and adopted its current name in 1967 when it became a part of the United States Department of Transportation. The FAA is the single most influential governmentally-run aviation agency in the world, with the European Aviation Safety Agency in a close second.


The Federal Aviation Administration's major roles include:

*    Regulating U.S. commercial space transportation

*    Encouraging and developing civil aeronautics, including new aviation technology

*    Regulating civil aviation to promote safety

*    Developing and operating a system of air traffic control and navigation for both civil and military aircraft

*    Researching and developing the National Airspace System and civil aeronautics

*    Developing and carrying out programs to control aircraft noise and other environmental effects of civil aviation

First Officer

In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot (sometimes referred to as the "co-pilot") of an aircraft. The first officer is second-in-command to the Captain who is the legal commander. In the event of incapacitation of the captain, the first officer will assume command of the aircraft. Control of the aircraft is normally shared equally between the first officer and the captain, with one pilot normally designated the "Pilot Flying" (PF) and the other the "Pilot Not Flying" (PNF) for each flight. Even when the first officer is the flying pilot, however, the captain remains ultimately responsible for the aircraft, its passengers, and the crew. In typical day-to-day operations, the essential job tasks remain fairly equal.


Because many airlines promote by seniority only within their own company, the first officer may at times have more flying hours than the captain, by virtue of having experience from other airlines or the military. Traditionally, the first officer sits on the right-hand side of a fixed-wing aircraft and the left-hand side of a helicopter. In the rank of Senior First Officer the pilot will also sit in the right hand seat. Often the Senior First Officer position is used within airlines to mean someone who has passed all the requirements for Captain, but there are no Captains positions within the company as yet, and therefore they are "on hold" until a position as captain becomes available when they will receive their Command Line Check


A position fix, or simply a fix, is a term used in position fixing in navigation to describe a position derived from measuring external reference points.  The term is generally used only with manual or visual techniques such as the use of intersecting visual or radio position lines rather than the use of more automated and accurate electronic methods such as GPS.  Usually, a fix is where two position lines intersect.


Flaps are hinged surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft. As flaps are extended, the stalling speed of the aircraft is reduced. Flaps are also used on the leading edge of the wings of some high-speed jet aircraft, where they may be called slats or Krueger Flaps.

Flaps reduce the stalling speed by increasing the camber of the wing and thereby increasing the maximum lift coefficient. Some trailing edge flaps also increase the area of the wing and, for any given aircraft weight, this reduces the stalling speed. The Fowler flap is an example of one which increases the area of the wing.


Extending the flaps also increases the drag coefficient of the aircraft so, for any given weight and airspeed, flaps cause higher drag. Flaps increase the drag coefficient of an aircraft because of higher induced drag caused by the distorted planform of the wing with flaps extended. (Induced drag is a minimum on a wing with elliptical planform.) Some flaps increase the wetted area of the wing and, for any given speed, this also increases the parasitic drag component of total drag.


Depending on the aircraft type, flaps may be partially extended for takeoff. With light aircraft, use of flaps for takeoff may be optional and will depend on the method of takeoff (e.g., short field, soft field, normal, etc.) When flaps are partially extended for takeoff it is to give the aircraft a slower stalling speed but with little increase in drag. A slower stalling speed allows the aircraft to take off in a shorter runway distance. Flaps are usually fully extended for landing to give the aircraft a slower stalling speed so the approach to landing can be flown more slowly, allowing the aircraft to land in a shorter runway distance. The higher drag associated with fully extended flaps allows a steeper approach to the landing site. This is the benefit of the higher drag coefficient of fully extended flaps.


Some gliders not only use flaps when landing but also in flight to optimize the camber of the wing for the chosen speed. When thermalling, flaps may be partially extended to reduce the stalling speed so that the glider can be flown more slowly and thereby turn in a smaller circle to make best use of the core of the thermal. At higher speeds a negative flap setting is used to reduce the nose-down pitching moment. This reduces the balancing load required on the horizontal stabilizer which in turn reduces the trim drag - drag associated with keeping the glider in longitudinal trim. Negative flap may also be used during the initial stage of an aerotow launch and at the end of the landing run in order to maintain better control by the ailerons.


Types of flap systems include:

*    Krueger flap - hinged flap on the leading edge. Often called a "droop."

*    Plain flap — rotates on a simple hinge.

*    Split flap — upper and lower surfaces are separate, the lower surface operates like a plain flap, but the upper surface stays immobile or moves only slightly.

*    Fowler flap — slides backwards before hinging downwards, thereby increasing both camber and chord, creating a larger wing surface better tuned for lower speeds.

*    Fairey-Youngman flap - moves bodily down before moving aft and rotating.

*    Slotted flap — a slot (or gap) between the flap and the wing enables high pressure air from below the wing to re-energize the boundary layer over the flap. This helps the airflow to stay attached to the flap, delaying the stall.

*    Blown flaps — systems that blow engine air over the upper surface of the flap at certain angles to improve lift characteristics.

Flight Operations

The department or program at an airline that is responsible for all areas of flight operations, including the airline's flight standards, flight control and crew scheduling, and oversight of the development and implementation of operational policies and procedures to ensure the highest possible level of safety and efficiency.

Fort Lewis, Washington

Fort Lewis is a census-designated place and U.S. Army post located in Pierce County, Washington, United States. As of the 2000 census, the base had a total population of 19,089. The principal Fort Lewis maneuver units are U.S. I Corps, 3rd Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, 4th Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division, and 5th Brigade, 2nd Infantry Division; all of which are constituted as Stryker brigades. It is also home to 62nd Medical Brigade, the 593rd Sustainment Brigade, the 555th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade, the 42nd Military Police Brigade, the 51st Signal Battalion, 11th Signal Brigade, the I Corps NCO Academy, Headquarters, Western Region Cadet Command, the 1st Personnel Support Group, 1st Special Forces Group (Airborne), 2d Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment, and Headquarters, 5th Army (West). Fort Lewis has more than 25,000 soldiers and civilian workers. The post supports 120,000(+) retirees and more than 29,000 family members living both on and off post. Fort Lewis proper contains 86,000 acres (350 km²); the Yakima Training Center covers 324,000 acres (1,310 km²). Part of Forces Command, Fort Lewis is the home of I Corps and has been since 1981. It is one of 15 US power projection platforms. The Corps' primary focus is Pacific Rim. As a result, I Corps has a close, ongoing relationship with Pacific Command.


Fort Lewis is located at 47°6′52″N, 122°33′53″W (47.114369, -122.564587).


According to the United States Census Bureau, the base has a total area of 15.9 square miles (41.2 km²), of which, 15.3 square miles (39.6 km²) of it is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km²) of it is water. The total area is 3.78% water. The Fort Lewis terrain is densely wooded and open, with Scotch Broom and undulating rocky terrain common. Poison-oak, ivy, and sumac are found in the training areas. Canadian Thistle grows thickly in some areas. All trees are to be left standing; post policy prohibits cutting or trimming them. The temperatures during summer vary from the mid 40's at night to the high 80's during the day, occasionally peaking over 100 °F (38 °C). Humidity varies from day to day and frequent precipitation occurs overnight. Although July and August are usually "dry" months, it is not unusual for moderate rainfall to occur.




Geocaching is an entertaining adventure game for GPS users. Participating in a cache hunt is a good way to take advantage of the wonderful features and capability of a GPS unit. The basic idea is to have individuals and organizations set up caches all over the world and share the locations of these caches on the internet. GPS users can then use the location coordinates to find the caches. Once found, a cache may provide the visitor with a wide variety of rewards. All the visitor is asked to do is if they take something they should try to leave something for the cache.


Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in London. It is now often used to refer to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when this is viewed as a time zone, although strictly UTC is an atomic time scale which only approximates GMT in the old sense. It is also used to refer to Universal Time (UT), which is the astronomical concept that directly replaced the original GMT. In the community of Greenwich, GMT (in the form of UTC) is the official time only during winter (during summer the time in Greenwich is British Summer Time rather than GMT). Also see UTC.


The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Utilizing a constellation of at least 24 Medium Earth Orbit satellites that transmit precise microwave signals, the system enables a GPS receiver to determine its location, speed, direction, and time. Other similar systems are the Russian GLONASS (incomplete as of 2008), the upcoming European Galileo positioning system, the proposed COMPASS navigation system of China, and IRNSS of India. Developed by the United States Department of Defense, GPS is officially named NAVSTAR GPS (Contrary to popular belief, NAVSTAR is not an acronym, but simply a name given by John Walsh, a key decision maker when it came to the budget for the GPS program). The satellite constellation is managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. The cost of maintaining the system is approximately US $750 million per year, including the replacement of aging satellites, and research and development. Following the shooting down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in 1983, President Ronald Reagan issued a directive making the system available for free for civilian use as a common good. Since then, GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, and scientific uses. GPS also provides a precise time reference used in many applications including scientific study of earthquakes, and synchronization of telecommunications networks.


HALO (high-altitude, low-opening)

The origins of the HALO technique date back to 1960 when the U.S. Air Force was conducting experiments that followed earlier work by Colonel John Stapp in the late 1940s through early 1950s on survivability factors for high-flying pilots needing to eject at high altitudes. Stapp, a research physicist and medical doctor, used himself as a human guinea pig in rocket sled tests to determine whether or not wind impact would kill ejecting pilots. Stapp also solved many of the issues involved in high altitude flight in his earliest work for the Air Force, and subjected himself to exposure to altitudes of 45,000 feet (14,000 m). Subsequently, he helped develop pressure suits and ejection seats, which have been used in jets ever since. As part of the experiments, on August 16, 1960, Colonel Joe Kittinger performed the first high altitude jump at an altitude of 19.5 miles (31.4 km) above the Earth's surface.


However, the technique was used for combat for the first time in the U.S. military involvement in Laos, when members of MACV-SOG performed the first high altitude combat jumps. SEAL Team SIX of the United States Navy expanded the HALO technique to include delivery of boats and other large items in conjunction with parachutists. The technique is used to airdrop supplies, equipment, or personnel at high altitudes when aircraft can fly above SAM missile engagement levels through enemy skies without posing a threat to the transport or load.


For military cargo airdrops, the rigged load is pulled from the aircraft by a stabilizing parachute. The load then proceeds to free-fall to a low altitude where a cargo parachute opens to allow a low-velocity landing. Military personnel will later move to the landing point in order to secure the equipment or to unpack the supplies.


In a typical HALO exercise, the parachutist will jump from the aircraft, free-fall for a period of time at terminal velocity, and open his parachute at a low altitude. The combination of high speed downwards, and minimal metal and forward air-speed serves to defeat radar, enabling a stealthy insertion.


Hijacking - hijacking (plural hijackings)

1.     The act of one who hijacks; the seizure of vehicles.

2.     The instance of such an act; the seizure of a vehicle.

Also see skyjacking.


Hydrology (from Greek: for "water"; and "study") is the study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water throughout the Earth, and thus addresses both the hydrologic cycle and water resources. A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of either earth science or environmental science, physical geography or civil and environmental engineering.


Domains of hydrology include: hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role. Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects.


Hydrological research is useful in that it allows us to better understand the world in which we live, and also provides insight for environmental engineering, policy and planning.



Issaquah, WA

Issaquah (Iz-ah-qu-ah) is a city in King County, Washington, United States. The population was 11,212 at the 2000 census. Issaquah is an anglicized word for a local Native American name, meaning "the sound of birds". Issaquah is located at 47°32′8″N, 122°2′36″W (47.535573, -122.043298), at the south end of Lake Sammamish. Neighboring cities include Bellevue and Redmond, both a short 8 miles away, and downtown Seattle 17 miles to the West. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.4 square miles (21.9 km²), of which, 8.4 square miles (21.8 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (0.35%) is water.




Jack the Ripper is an alias given to an unidentified serial killer active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area and adjacent districts of London, England in the late 19th century. The name is taken from a letter sent to the Central News Agency by someone claiming to be the murderer.


The victims were women allegedly earning income as prostitutes. The murders were perpetrated in public or semi-public places at night or towards the early morning. The victim's throat was cut, after which the body was mutilated. Theories suggest the victims were first strangled in order to silence them and to explain the lack of reported blood at the crime scenes. The removal of internal organs from three of the victims led some officials at the time of the murders to propose that the killer possessed anatomical or surgical knowledge. Newspapers, whose circulation had been growing during this era, bestowed widespread and enduring notoriety on the killer owing to the savagery of the attacks and the failure of the police in their attempts to capture the murderer, sometimes missing him at the crime scenes by mere minutes.


Due to the lack of a confirmed identity for the killer, the legends surrounding the murders have become a combination of genuine historical research, folklore and exploitation. Over the years, many authors, historians, and amateur detectives have proposed theories regarding the identities of the killer and his victims.

Jon Benet Ramsey

JonBenét Patricia Ramsey (August 6, 1990—December 25, 1996) was an American girl made famous by her mysterious Christmastime murder and subsequent media coverage. She was found dead in the basement of her parents' home in Boulder, Colorado, nearly eight hours after she was reported missing.


The case is notable in both its longevity and the media interest it has generated in the US. After several grand jury hearings, the case is still unsolved. The tantalizing clues of the case inspired numerous books and articles that attempt to solve the mystery. Many details of the case, including suspicions of possible family involvement, her parents' wealth, her apparently violent death, and the fact that JonBenét had frequently been entered in beauty contests, enhanced public interest in the case.

Jump Wings

(See Parachutist Badge)







Lake Merwin

Lake Merwin is located 9.75 miles northeast of Woodland. It is an artificial reservoir in the north fork of the Lewis River below Yale Reservoir. It is 12 miles long, with 2,400 acres in Clark County, and 1,690 acres in Cowlitz County. In addition to receiving water from the north fork of the Lewis River, it is fed by Speelyai, Brooks, Rock, Canyon, Buncombe Hollow, Indian George, Jim, Cape Horn, and Marble Creeks.



McChord Airbase

McChord Air Force Base (TCM) is a United States Air Force base in Pierce County, Washington. As of the 2000 census, it had a total population of 4,096. It is current home to the 62nd Airlift Wing, 446th Airlift Wing, and the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS).

McNeil Island Corrections Center

McNeil Island Corrections Center (MICC) is located 2.8 miles from Steilacoom in southern Puget Sound just west of Steilacoom, Washington at  47°12′42″N, 122°41′14″W. It is reached by a 20-minute boat ride on one of the facility's passenger vessels. 


The main facility houses medium-custody offenders in five living units and a segregation unit. It is located on approximately 89 acres and is within walking distance of the island passenger dock. 


Currently, MICC has 555 staff members. Two other buildings house education, recreation, medical and mental health services, and vocational education.  Also located on McNeil Island is the Special Commitment Center, which is operated by the Department of Social and Health Services.

Mean Sea Level (MSL)

Mean Sea Level (MSL) is the average (mean) height of the sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface. Defining the reference level however, involves complex measurement, and accurately determining MSL can prove difficult. Despite the difficulties, aviators flying under instrument flight rules (IFR) must have accurate and reliable measurements of their altitudes above (or below) mean sea level, and the altitude of the airports where they intend to land.


A meme consists of any unit of cultural information, such as a practice or idea, that gets transmitted verbally or by repeated action from one mind to another. Examples include thoughts, ideas, theories, practices, habits, songs, dances and moods and terms such as race, culture, and ethnicity. Memes propagate themselves and can move through a "culture" in a manner similar to the behavior of a virus. As a unit of cultural evolution, a meme in some ways resembles a gene. Richard Dawkins, in his book, The Selfish Gene, recounts how and why he coined the term meme to describe how one might extend Darwinian principles to explain the spread of ideas and cultural phenomena. He gave as examples tunes, catch-phrases, beliefs, clothing-fashions, and the technology of building arches.

Meme-theorists contend that memes evolve by natural selection (similarly to Darwinian biological evolution) through the processes of variation, mutation, competition, and inheritance influencing an individual entity's reproductive success. So with memes, some ideas will propagate less successfully and become extinct, while others will survive, spread, and, for better or for worse, mutate. "Memeticists argue that the memes most beneficial to their hosts will not necessarily survive; rather, those memes that replicate the most effectively spread best, which allows for the possibility that successful memes may prove detrimental to their hosts."

Mexico City

Mexico City (in Spanish: Ciudad de México, México, D.F. or simply México) is the capital city of Mexico. It is the most important economic, industrial and cultural centre in the country, and the most populous city with 8,720,916 inhabitants in 2005. Greater Mexico City (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México) incorporates 58 adjacent municipalities of Mexico State and 1 municipality of the state of Hidalgo, according to the most recent definition agreed upon by the federal and state governments. In 2006 Greater Mexico City had a population of 19.2 million, making it the largest metropolitan area in the western hemisphere and the second largest in the world. In 2005, it ranked the eighth in terms GDP (PPP) among urban agglomerations in the world. Along with São Paulo it is the only Beta global city with 8 points in Latin America.

My Lai Massacre

The My Lai Massacre was the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), almost entirely civilians and majority of them women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968. Before being killed some of the victims were raped and sexually molested, beaten, tortured, or maimed. Some of the dead bodies were also mutilated. The massacre took place in the hamlets of Mỹ Lai and My Khe of Sơn Mỹ village during the Vietnam War. The incident prompted widespread outrage around the world and reduced U.S. support at home for the Vietnam War. The massacre is also known as the Sơn Mỹ Massacre (Vietnamese: thảm sát Sơn Mỹ) or sometimes as the Song My Massacre. The U.S. military codeword for the hamlet was Pinkville, another name by which the massacre is known.





The Resistration Number of the Boeing 727-51 that was being flown on Northwest Airlines Flight 305 on the night it was hijacked near Portland, Oregon.

Serial 18803; Line Number  137; First Flight  04/09/1965; Delivery Date  04/22/1965 ; Model 727-51; Airline, Northwest Airlines; Status Left Fleet

All Registrations

N467US Northwest Airlines

N838N Piedmont AL

N838N United Technologies lsd

N838N Flight Dynamics lsd

N838N Key AL

N29KA Key AL rr

N29KA AvSales-Key AL

N29KA WrldCpL-Key AL

Withdrawn from use Feb 93, flown to Greenwood MS Oct 93 to be broken up. Scrapped 1996.



The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is the largest sanctioning body of stock cars in the United States. The three largest racing series sanctioned by NASCAR are: the Sprint Cup, the Nationwide Series and the Camping World Truck Series. It also oversees NASCAR Local Racing, the Whelen Modified Tour, and the Whelen All-American Series. NASCAR sanctions over 1,500 races at over 100 tracks in 39 states, Canada, and Mexico.


From 1996 to 1998, NASCAR held exhibition races in Japan and an exhibition race in Australia in 1988.With roots as regional entertainment in the Southeastern U.S., NASCAR has grown to become the second-most popular professional sport in terms of television ratings inside the U.S., ranking behind only the National Football League. Internationally, NASCAR races are broadcast in over 150 countries. It holds 17 of the top 20 attended sporting events in the U.S., and has 75 million fans who purchase over $3 billion in annual licensed product sales. These fans are considered the most brand-loyal in all of sports and as a result, Fortune 500 companies sponsor NASCAR more than any other governing body.


In 2007 NASCAR made a profit of just under $3 billion, and was the second richest motorsport (Formula One was first). NASCAR's headquarters are located in Daytona Beach, Florida, although it also maintains offices in four North Carolina cities: Charlotte, Mooresville, Concord, and Conover. Regional offices are also located in New York City, Los Angeles, Arkansas, and international offices in Mexico City and Toronto. Additionally, owing to its southern roots, all but a handful of NASCAR teams are still based in North Carolina, especially near Charlotte. Cities in North Carolina that are home to NASCAR teams include: Charlotte, Mooresville, Concord, Statesville, Huntersville, Cornelius, Welcome, Wilkesboro, Kernersville, Randleman, Greensboro, High Point, Harrisburg, and Kannapolis.

Nautical Miles (NM)

A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. It corresponds approximately to one minute of latitude along any meridian. It is a non-SI unit used especially by navigators in the shipping and aviation industries. It is commonly used in international law and treaties, especially regarding the limits of territorial waters. The international standard definition is: 1 nautical mile = 1,852 metres exactly. It is also equal to 1.150779 statute miles.


The code-name used by the FBI for the Cooper case. Also the name of a book by Ralph P. Himmelsbach an investigator on NORJAK until his retirement in 1980. The actual title of the book is: “Norjak the Investigation of D B Cooper”




Northwest Airlines, Inc. (NWA)

Northwest Airlines, Inc. (often abbreviated NWA) is the principal subsidiary of Northwest Airlines Corporation and is a major United States airline headquartered in Eagan, Minnesota, near Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport in the United States. Northwest has three major hubs in the United States: Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, and Memphis International Airport. Northwest also operates flights from a small hub in Asia at Narita International Airport near Tokyo and also operates transatlantic flights in cooperation with partner KLM from Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam. Additionally, it maintains focus city operations at Indianapolis International Airport, Honolulu International Airport, and Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. At one time the airline re-branded itself as Northwest Orient Airlines, although the legal name of the company remained Northwest Airlines.

Nuclear Power Industry

The industry and technology surrounding the production of electric power by use if a nuclear reactor. As of 2007 in the United States, there are 104 (69 pressurized water reactors and 35 boiling water reactors) commercial nuclear generating units licensed to operate, producing a total of 97,400 megawatts (electric), which is approximately 20% of the nation's total electric energy consumption. The United States is the world's largest supplier of commercial nuclear power.






Pacific Standard Time (PST)

The Pacific Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting eight hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC-8). The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 120th degree meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory. During daylight saving time, its time offset is UTC-7. The zone is one hour ahead of the Alaska Time Zone, one hour behind the Mountain Time Zone and three hours behind the Eastern Time Zone. In the United States, the states of Washington and California are located entirely within the Pacific Time Zone.

Parachute Rigger

A parachute rigger is a person who is trained or licensed to pack, maintain or repair parachutes. A rigger is required to understand fabrics, hardware, webbing, regulations, sewing, packing, and other aspects related to the building, packing, repair, and maintenance of parachutes.


Portland International Airport (IATA: PDX, ICAO: KPDX, FAA LID: PDX) is the largest airport in the U.S. state of Oregon, accounting for 90% of passenger travel and more than 95% of air cargo of the state.  It is located on the south side of the Columbia River in Multnomah County, six miles by air and twelve miles by highway northeast of downtown Portland. Local transportation includes light rail on the MAX Red Line and Interstate 205 for autos.


PDX has direct connections to major airport hubs throughout the United States, plus non-stop international flights to Canada, Germany, Japan, Mexico, and The Netherlands. It is also a hub for flights to smaller cities in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, California and Nevada. General aviation services are provided at PDX by Flightcraft. The Oregon Air National Guard has a base located on the south side of the property. PDX is a major hub for Alaska Airlines and Horizon Air, located on Concourses A, B, and C. PDX also serves as a maintenance facility for Horizon Air.


Parachuting is an activity involving a preplanned drop from a height using a deployable parachute. One type of parachuting is skydiving, which is recreational parachuting, also called sport parachuting. The history of parachuting is not clear. It's known that Andre-Jacques Garnerin made successful parachute jumps from a hot-air balloon in 1797.


The military developed parachuting technology first as a way to save aircrews from emergencies aboard balloons and aircraft in flight, later as a way of delivering soldiers to the battlefield. Early competitions date back to the 1930s, and it became an international sport in 1951. Today it is performed as a recreational activity and a competitive sport, as well as for the deployment of military personnel Airborne forces and occasionally forest firefighters. Also see skydiving.

Parachutist Badge

The Parachutist Badge, also commonly referred to as "Jump Wings" or "Snow Cone", is a military badge of the United States Armed Forces which is awarded to members of the United States Army, Air Force, Marine Corps and Navy. The United States Coast Guard is the only service which does not issue a Parachutist Badge, however Coast Guard members are entitled to receive the Parachutist Badge of another service, if the proper training was received.


The Army Parachutist Badge is awarded to all military personnel in any service who complete United States Army Airborne School, 3 weeks of training at Fort Benning, Georgia. It signifies that the soldier is a trained Army Parachutist and is qualified to conduct airborne operations.


The original Army Parachutist Badge was designed in 1941 by Lieutenant General (then Major) William P. Yarborough and approved by the Department of the Army in March of that year. The Parachutist Badge replaced the Parachutist Patch which previously had been worn as a large patch on the right side of a Paratrooper's garrison cap. The flash that is worn behind the badge is also a contribution of William P. Yarborough.


The Army Parachutist Badge is issued in three degrees, being that of Basic, Senior, and Master Parachutist. The various degrees are signified by a star and wreath above the decoration.

Pentagon Papers

The Pentagon Papers is the popular name for a 7,000-page top-secret United States government report about the history of the Government's internal planning and policy concerning the Vietnam War. The documents became famous when State Department officer Daniel Ellsberg gave them to The New York Times to publish in early 1971.


The Pentagon Papers' true title is “United States–Vietnam Relations, 1945–1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense”, a 47-volume, 7,000-page, top-secret Department of Defense history of the United States' politico-military involvement in the war in Vietnam. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara commissioned the study in 1967, and appointed Leslie Gelb (Pentagon international security affairs policy planning-arms control director) as study supervisor. Gelb hired 36 military officers, civilian policy experts, and historians to write the study's monographs. The Pentagon Papers included 4,000 pages of actual documents from the 1945–67 period.


A placard is a sign or sign-like device attached to or hung from a vehicle to indicate information about the operation of the vehicle or the contents of the vehicle.

Portland State University

Portland State University (PSU) is a public state urban university located in downtown Portland, Oregon, United States. Founded in 1946, it has the largest overall enrollment of any university in the state of Oregon, including undergraduate and graduate students. It is also the only public university in the state that is located in a major metropolitan city. Portland State is part of the Oregon University System. The current interim President is Michael Reardon, who has held various administrative positions around Portland State.


Athletic teams are known as the Portland State Vikings with school colors of forest green and white. Teams compete at the NCAA Division I Level, primarily in the Big Sky Conference.


Schools at PSU include the School of Business Administration, Graduate School of Education, School of Fine and Performing Arts, School of Social Work, College of Urban and Public Affairs, Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, and the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.


Portland, Oregon

Portland is a city located near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. With an estimated population of 568,380 it is Oregon's most populous city, and the third most populous city in the Pacific Northwest, after Vancouver, British Columbia, and Seattle, Washington. Approximately two million people live in Portland metropolitan area (MSA), the 23rd most populous in the United States as of July 2006.


Portland was incorporated in 1851 and is the seat of Multnomah County. The city extends slightly into Washington County to the west and Clackamas County to the south. It is governed by a commission-based government headed by a mayor and four other commissioners. Portland's first mayor was Hugh O'Bryant who served for one year.


The city and region are noted for strong land-use planning and investment in public transit, supported by Metro, a distinctive regional-government scheme. Portland lies in the Marine West Coast climate region, which is marked by warm summers and rainy but temperate winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, and for more than a century, Portland has been known as "The City of Roses" with many rose gardens – most prominently the International Rose Test Garden. Portland is also known for its large number of microbreweries and as the home of the Trail Blazers NBA basketball team.

Private Pilot

A Private Pilot is the holder of a Private Pilot License. They are able to fly to almost anywhere in the world, but are limited in the aircraft that they can fly and the number of passengers they can fly with (usually restricted to 10). They are also not permitted to profit from any flight or advertise their services, although they may have their expenses partially, or in some countries, completely covered by the passengers. Although most Private Pilots can only fly under the Visual Flight Rules (VFR) during the day, night and instrument ratings can also be obtained.

Puget Sound

Puget Sound is an arm of the Pacific Ocean, connected to the rest of the Pacific by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. It branches out from Admiralty Inlet and Deception Pass in the north to Olympia, Washington in the south. The surrounding land partially overlaps the Seattle metropolitan area, home to about 4 million people.








Also see Parachute Rigger

Radioteletype (RTTY)

A telecommunications system consisting of two or more teleprinters using radio as the transmission medium. The term radioteletype is used to describe: either the entire family of systems connecting two teletypes (TTY) over radio, regardless of alphabet, link system or modulation, or specifically the original radioteletype system, sometime described as "Baudot".

Reno, NV

Reno, city (1990 pop. 133,850), seat of Washoe Co., Western Nevada., on the Truckee River; incorporated in 1903. Tourism has been the major industry since gambling was legalized in Nevada in 1931. With its resort facilities, night entertainment, and casinos, Reno is a year-round vacation spot and convention center. It became famous for the quick divorces and marriages that take place there under Nevada's liberal laws. The city's activity has resulted in its slogan “The biggest little city in the world.”


Reno is one of the fastest-growing U.S. cities. It has an international airport and serves as a distribution and warehouse center, where commercial goods can be stored tax-free for nearby manufacturing plants. Concrete, automated gaming systems, Western buckles and accessories, beverage dispensers, and plastic and metal products are manufactured. There is alfalfa processing and mining for gold and silver.

The site was once a popular campsite beside a ford on the Donner Pass route to California; in 1860 a bridge was built. The name Lake's Crossing was changed to Reno when the Central Pacific RR arrived in 1868 and the town was laid out. In the 1990s officials began deemphasizing gambling; one result was the building of the National Bowling Stadium.


Reno is the seat of the Univ. of Nevada, with its school of mines museum and Desert Research Institute. The city is also the headquarters for the Toiyabe National Forest. Lake Tahoe, Pyramid Lake, and other recreational areas and state parks are in the vicinity.




The Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) system, completed in the early 1960s, revolutionized air defense. The integrated radar and computer technology that was developed for SAGE also contributed significantly to the development of civilian air traffic control systems.


SeaTac is a city and outlying suburb of Seattle, located in the southern section of King County in Washington State. It surrounds and is named after the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (owned by the Port of Seattle), also referred to as Sea-Tac, but spelled with a hyphen. The name of the city is an example of a blend, referring to the city's location between Seattle and Tacoma, but is approximately twice as far from downtown Tacoma as it is from downtown Seattle. The population was 25,496 at the 2000 census.

Seattle, WA

Seattle is a coastal port city and the largest city in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located in the state of Washington between an arm of the Pacific Ocean called Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 96 miles (154 km) south of the Canada – United States border in King County, of which it is the county seat.


The Seattle area has been inhabited for at least 4,000 years, but European settlement began only in the mid-19th century. The first permanent white settlers—Arthur A. Denny and those subsequently known as the Denny party—arrived November 13, 1851. Early settlements in the area were called "New York-Alki" ("Alki" meaning "by and by" in the local Chinook Jargon) and "Duwamps". In 1853, Doc Maynard suggested that the main settlement be renamed "Seattle," an anglicized rendition of the name of Sealth, the chief of the two local tribes. In 2006, the city had an estimated population of 582,174 and an estimated metropolitan area population of approximately 4 million. Seattle is the hub and largest city of the Seattle metropolitan area, often called Puget Sound, which also includes Tacoma, Bellevue, and Everett. From 1869 until 1982, Seattle was known as the "Queen City". Seattle's current official nickname is the "Emerald City," the result of a contest held in the early 1980s; the reference is to the lush evergreen trees in the surrounding area. Seattle is also referred to informally as the "Gateway to Alaska," "Rain City," and "Jet City," the latter from the local influence of Boeing. Seattle residents are known as Seattleites.

Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA)

Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA), also known as Sea-Tac Airport, is located in SeaTac, Washington, United States at the intersections of State Route 518, State Route 99 and State Route 509. It is located about 1.5 miles from Interstate 5. It serves Seattle, Washington and Tacoma, Washington as well as the Seattle metropolitan area and western Washington state. The airport is a hub for Alaska Airlines, whose headquarters is located near the airport, and its regional subsidiary Horizon Air. The airport has service to many destinations throughout North America, Europe and East Asia. It is also an international gateway for Northwest Airlines.

Sectional Aeronautical Charts

A sectional chart provides detailed information on topographical features that are important to aviators, such as terrain elevations, ground features identifiable from altitude (rivers, dams, bridges, buildings, etc.), and ground features useful to pilots (airports, beacons, landmarks, etc.).


The chart also provides information on airspace classes, ground-based navigation aids, radio frequencies, longitude and latitude, navigation waypoints, navigation routes.


Sectional charts are in 1:500,000 scale and are named for a major city within their area of coverage. The Federal Aviation Administration in the United States provides a series of over 50 charts covering the continental United States, Alaska, and Hawaii. Sectional charts are published by the National Aeronautical Charting Office of the FAA. A number of commercial enterprises, notably Jeppesen, produce compatible, certified sectionals.


The sectionals are complemented by Terminal Area Charts (TACs), produced in 1:250,000 scale and depicting the areas around major U.S. airports in detail. The charts are updated at six-month intervals to ensure topographic, navigational, communications and obstacle information remains current.


The first sectional chart was published in 1930. It was not until 1937 that the full series of the lower 48 states was completed. These early sectional charts were printed on smaller sheets of paper and map information was only printed on one side while the reverse side contained the legend, index to adjoining charts, and airport diagrams.


Sheridan, Oregon

Sheridan is a city in Yamhill County, Oregon, United States. The population was 3,570 at the 2000 census. The 2006 estimate is 5,785 residents. It was named in honor of the Civil War general Philip Henry Sheridan. General Sheridan was posted to Yamhill County at Fort Yamhill in the latter half of the 1850s.


Sheridan is located at 45°5′54″N, 123°23′50″W (45.098384, -123.397171). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles (4.9 km²), of which, 1.9 square miles (4.8 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (2.62%) is water. The city is served by two main roads, Oregon Route 18 and Oregon Route 18 Business. The business route runs through downtown on the north side of the South Yamhill River and connects to Shipley and Willamina, Oregon to the west. The Sheridan Bridge on Bridge Street connects the two sides of the city across the river. Oregon Route 18 connects to McMinnville, the county seat and beyond to the Portland metropolitan area.


One type of parachuting is skydiving, which is recreational parachuting, also called sport parachuting.

Also see parachuting


The kidnapping of the passengers of an airplane by threat of force. The hijacking an airplane, especially in flight.  Also see hijacking.

Stanford University

Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private university located approximately 37 miles (60 kilometers) southeast of San Francisco and approximately 20 miles (32 km) northwest of San Jose in Stanford, California, United States. Stanford is situated adjacent to the city of Palo Alto, on the San Francisco Peninsula.

State Patrol (Washington)

The Washington State Patrol (WSP) is the state police agency for the State of Washington. The first six motorcycle patrolmen of the (then) Highway Patrol were commissioned September 1, 1921. The agency was renamed to Washington State Patrol in June of 1933.


The State Patrol has law enforcement authority anywhere in the State of Washington, with caveats for Federal property and may have limited authority on Indian reservations. They also have a memorandum of understanding with the Oregon State Police and are granted eight miles of jurisdiction into the State of Oregon. They are most frequently encountered by citizens on the state highways. Individual officers of the Washington State Patrol are known as "Troopers."


Having a dark complexion or color.




Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city in and the county seat of Pierce County, Washington, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, 32 miles (51 km) southwest of Seattle, 31 miles (50 km) northeast of the state capital, Olympia, and 58 miles (93 km) northwest of Mount Rainier National Park. The population was 193,556 at the 2000 census. Tacoma is the second-largest city in the Puget Sound area and the third largest in the state.

Tena Bar

Tena Bar is a sandbar on the Columbia River, five miles downriver from downtown Vancouver, WA.


Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a traditional North American holiday, which is a form of harvest festival. First celebrated in what would become Canada in the late 1500s, Thanksgiving was later also celebrated in what would become the United States in the early 1600s. Today, Thanksgiving is celebrated on the second Monday of October in Canada and on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States.

Toutle, WA

Toutle is an unincorporated community in Cowlitz County, Washington, United States. Toutle is located at 46°21′N, 122°42′W, approximately ten miles east on SR 504 from exit 49 of I-5. Toutle is not very far from the well-known Mount St. Helens. The population of Toutle is 731.


TTY is a short form of a Teletypewriter or Teletype, a typewriter with an electronic communication channel. Also see RTTY.




The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the U.S. Previously part of the U.S. Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947. It is the last branch of the United States military to be formed.


Coordinated Universal Time (UTC, Fr. Temps Universal Coordonné)

Also see Coordinated Universal Time.



Vancouver, Washington

Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington and the county seat of Clark County. In 2007, the United States Census Bureau estimated that the city's population was 160,800. It is part of the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area.


The larger city of Vancouver, British Columbia is located 305 miles (491 km) north of Vancouver, Washington. Both cities were named for sea captain George Vancouver, but the Canadian city was not incorporated until 1886, nearly thirty years after Vancouver, Washington, and more than sixty years after the name Fort Vancouver was first used. City officials have periodically suggested changing the city's name to Fort Vancouver, Vancouver USA, or even Old Vancouver to reduce confusion with Vancouver, British Columbia. Washington residents distinguish between the two cities by referring to the Canadian Vancouver as "Vancouver, B.C." Royce Pollard, Mayor in 2008, is an advocate of the unofficial moniker "America's Vancouver."


The Vancouver area was inhabited by a variety of Native American tribes, most recently the Chinook and Klickitat nations, with permanent settlements of timber longhouses. The Chinookan and Klickitat names for the area were reportedly Skit-so-to-ho and Ala-si-kas, respectively, meaning "land of the mud-turtles". First European contact was in 1775, with approximately half of the indigenous population dead from small pox before the Lewis and Clark expedition camped in the area in 1806. Within another fifty years, other actions and diseases such as measles, malaria and influenza had reduced the Chinookan population from an estimated 80,000 to "to a few dozen refugees, landless, slaveless and swindled out of a treaty."

Meriwether Lewis wrote that the Vancouver area was "the only desired situation for settlement west of the Rocky Mountains." The first permanent European settlement did not occur until 1824, when Fort Vancouver was established as a fur trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company. From that time on, the area was settled by both the US and Britain under a "joint occupation" agreement. Joint occupation ended on June 15, 1846, with the signing of the Oregon Treaty, which gave the United States full control of the area. The City of Vancouver was incorporated on January 23, 1857 and in 2007 marks its sesquicentennial.

Victor Airway:

In aviation, an airway is a designated route in the air. Airways are laid out between navigation aids such as VORs, Non-Directional Beacons (NDBs) and Intersections (NDB-based airways are rare in the United States, but are more common in much of the rest of the world).


In the United States low altitude airways (below 18,000 feet [5,500 m] above Mean Sea Level (MSL)), appear on sectional world aeronautical charts and enroute low altitude charts and are designated by the letter "V" (pronounced Victor, hence Victor airways). High altitude airways (above 18,000 ft [5,500 m] MSL), called jet routes, appear on high altitude charts (that usually don't show topography, as the low altitude charts do) and are designated by the letter "J".


In the United States, Victor airways are Class E airspace from 1,200 ft above ground level (AGL) to 18,000 ft MSL. The width of the victor corridor depends on the distance from the navigational aids (such as VOR's and NDB's). When VOR's are less than 102 nautical miles (NM) from each other, the Victor airway extends 4NM on either side of the center line (8nm total width). When VOR's are more than 102 NM from each other, the width of the airway in the middle increases. The width of the airway beyond 51NM from a navaid is 4.5 degrees on either side of the center line between the two navaids (at 51NM from a navaid, 4.5 degrees from the centerline of a radial is equivalent to 4 NM). The maximum width of the airway is at the middle point between the two navaids. This is when 4.5 degrees from the center radial results in a maximum distance for both navaids.

Viet Nam War

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, the Vietnam Conflict, and, in Vietnam, the American War, occurred from 1959 to April 30, 1975. The war was fought between the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and its communist allies and the US-supported Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). It concluded with the defeat and dissolution of South Vietnam. For the United States, the war ended in the withdrawal of American troops and the failure of its foreign policy in Vietnam. Over 1.4 million military personnel were killed in the war (only 6 percent were members of the United States armed forces), while estimates of civilian fatalities range up to 2 million. On April 30, 1975, the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon, fell to the communist forces of North Vietnam, effectively ending the Vietnam War.


VOR, short for VHF Omni-directional Radio Range, is a type of radio navigation system for aircraft. VORs broadcast a VHF radio composite signal including the station's Morse code identifier (and sometimes a voice identifier), and data that allows the airborne receiving equipment to derive a magnetic bearing from the station to the aircraft (direction from the VOR station in relation to the Earth's magnetic North at the time of installation). VOR stations in areas of magnetic compass unreliability are oriented with respect to True North. This line of position is called the "radial" in VOR. The intersection of two radials from different VOR stations on a chart allows for a "fix" or approximate position of the aircraft.


Developed from earlier Visual-Aural Range (VAR) systems, the VOR was designed to provide 360 courses to and from the station selectable by the pilot. Early vacuum tube transmitters with mechanically-rotated antennas were widely installed in the 1950s, and began to be replaced with fully solid-state units in the early 1960s. They became the major radio navigation system in the 1960s, when they took over from the older radio beacon and four-course (low/medium frequency range) system. Some of the older range stations survived, with the four-course directional features removed, as non-directional low or medium frequency radio-beacons (NDBs).


The VOR's major advantage is that the radio signal provides a reliable line (radial) from the station which can be selected and followed by the pilot. A worldwide network of "air highways", known in the US as Victor Airways (below 18,000 feet) and "jet routes" (at and above 18,000 feet), was set up linking VORs. An aircraft could follow a specific path from station to station by tuning the successive stations on the VOR receiver, and then either following the desired course on a Radio Magnetic Indicator, or setting it on a conventional VOR indicator or a Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI, a more sophisticated version of the VOR indicator) and keeping a course pointer centered on the display.



Washougal River

The Washougal River is a shallow tributary of the Columbia River. Its mouth is located near the towns of Washougal and Camas, Washington. There are many cliffs and rocks that people jump off. There is also a bridge.

Washougal River Watershed

The headwaters of the Washougal River are in Gifford Pinchot National Forest in Skamania County. The river flows westward into Clark County and ultimately to the Columbia River at Camas. Twelve miles of its 33-mile length are in Clark County. Of the entire 212-square-mile Washougal River drainage area, 50 square miles are within Clark County. The two major tributaries, Little Washougal River and Cougar Creek, are located entirely within Clark County. The Washougal River watershed is largely forested, including the Gifford Pinchot National Forest and other public and private forestlands in the Cascade Mountains and foothills. Rural residential development and smaller farmsteads cover much of the lower watershed in Clark County. The last four miles of the Washougal River flow through the cities of Washougal and Camas

Wrist Altimeter

An altimeter worn on the wrist like a watch.

Also see Altimeter












This page was last revised: April 14, 2009.




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